Preparation of materials for printing, also known as DTP

Typography of the book

Composed page/Textblock – the area inside the trimmed size containing text, charts, pictures.

Margin – the distance between the edge of cut and an object inside the page.

Inside margin/Inner margin – the distance between the edge of cut on the spine side and an object inside the page.

Outside margin/Outer margin – the distance between the edge of cut opposite to the spine and an object inside the page.

Top and bottom margin – the distance between the edge of cut, upper and lower respectively, and an object inside the page.

Page number – the numbering of pages, located above, under, or next to a textblock.

Running title – a line at the top or the bottom of a page containing the title of a chapter and a subchapter and a number designating the consecutive page number.

Odd page – a book page with an uneven number as counted from the beginning of the block. It is located on the right side of an open book.

Even page – a book page with an even number as counted from the beginning of the block. It is located on the left side of an open book.

Bastard title page/Half-title – the first page of a book containing author’s name, abridged title, and, sometimes, publishing company logo.

Title page – the first (if there is no bastard title page) or the third page of a publication containing main information, such as title, authors’ names, publishing company name, place of issue, etc.

Colophon – information mostly located on the back of the title page or at the end of a book, containing details on the authors and people participating in the publication of the work, as well as technical information including place of issue and printing.

Note – auxiliary text (supplement, explanation) added by an author or a publisher, located mostly at the bottom of a page of a work’s actual text or after the main text, with which it is linked.

Nr ISBN – standardized thirteen-digit number identifying all books and brochures.

Nr ISSN – standardized eight-digit number identifying all periodical publications.

First page of cover – the page on the right side of an unfolded cover, containing the title, author, etc.

Fourth page of cover – the page on the left side of an unfolded cover, containing a note, biography, reviews, ISBN, etc.

Second and third page of cover – the left and right internal page of an unfolded cover.

Spine of book – the side area of a bindery product / book / publication where folded sheets or pages are joined together. The element located in the center of an unfolded cover between page 1 and 4 of the cover.

Matched spine – the spine graphics are clearly separated from the graphics on both or one of the cover pages, with clear-cut boundaries.

Mismatched spine – the spine graphics create a single whole with the cover pages, without clear-cut boundaries.

PDF – the format of documents provided to a printing house. Commonly used due to its universal application, large possibilities, high configurability, and flexibility.

Postscript – a rarely used graphical data format of older type. Simpler and less powerful than PDF. No generally available browsers.

TIFF – one of the formats of digital images in the form of lossless bitmaps in a separate file or a PDF file.

JPEG – a popular format of pixel images/bitmaps in a separate PDF file, using lossy data compression, developed by Joint Photographic Expert Group.

ZIP – a lossless method of file compression, including bitmaps in a PDF file.

Bitmap – a type of computer graphics where an image (picture, chart, text) is made of a regular grid of elements of identical size (pixels).

Bitmap multi-bit – a type of bitmap where pixels may have multiple shades or colors. Used mainly for pictures, but also charts and multi-color drawings.

Bitmap one-bit – a type of bitmap where pixels may adopt two values only (color or background). Used mainly for line drawings, flourishes, sometimes for text.

Resolution – density of bitmap pixels on a printout. It is expressed in pixels per inch (ppi), e.g. 300 ppi. NOTE! In practice, we often use dpi (dots per inch).

Vector graphics – a graphic object (chart, flourish, ornament, text) where straight lines, curves, and complex geometric figures are described using vectors (mathematical description).

Preparation of materials for printing, also known as DTP

Colour space

Colour space – a set of all colors possible to be recorded/displayed/printed in a particular system or on a particular device.

CMYK – an abbreviation used to define the set of process colors commonly used in color printing: CYAN, MAGENTA, YELLOW, and BLACK.

RGB – an abbreviation used to define the set of colors displayed on a computer screen: RED, GREEN, BLUE.

Grayscale – a color space used to record the shades of gray.

Profile ICC – a set of parameters assigned to a file or an object, modifying the colors in order to achieve the intended color effect.

Colour separations – a single component color isolated from a particular color space. NOTE! Not to be confused with a color remaining in the color space. For example, one CMYK object will be divided on consecutive pages into four different objects – in C, in M, etc.

Composite – a work recorded in the CMYK format, but not separated.

Layers – a method of preparing a document involving the division of the content into independent groups that penetrate one another. Each group takes the entire area of a document and is located one on top of the other.

Spot colour – an additional color in a file (apart from CMYK) for representing colors impossible to render using CMYK, frequently used to record, for example, mask for varnish or cutting die.

Registration colour – a special color. A logical color that adopts 100% for each basic color used in a project (for each component and the spot color). Used for printing marks.

Pantone colour – the brand of a color system common in the printing industry, not falling within the color space of CMYK, developed by the American company – Pantone.

HKS colour – the brand of one of the color systems not falling within the color space of CMYK, developed by the German company – HKS.

Preparation of materials for printing, also known as DTP

Preparation of materials

Trimmed size – the format of a book sheet or a book copy after trimming. In the trim box file.

Untrimed size – the format of a print paper or a print copy before trimming/cutting (with bleed allowance) in the bleed box file.

Edge of cut – an imaginary line along which a work is trimmed.

Bleed – the part of an image beyond the trimmed size, removed during trimming.

Trapping – extension or overlap of neighboring color elements in order to avoid white clearances in case there is no register on the printing machine.

Flap – the part of the covering overlapping the internal part of the cover and glued to the board.

Counter (object/text in counter) – white or bright objects/texts located on a darker background.

Overprint – an object parameter meaning that the background under the object will be printed.

White overpirnt – a white object with an overprint setting, invisible on print.

Overprint white in Spot color – an object in spot color with an overprint setting because spot colors do not mix with CMYK color. The printing effect may be hard to predict.

Overprint white in Register color – an object in a registered color with a transparency setting because a registered color is a logical color (there is no uniform value). The printing effect may be hard to predict.

Transparency – an object parameter determining the visibility of the background under the object. Not to be confused with overprint.

Transparent object in Spot color – an object in spot color with a transparency setting because spot colors do not mix with CMYK colors. The printing effect may be hard to predict.

Moire – an undesirable regular pattern on an image caused by incorrectly prepared files or scanning original raster images.

Text – an object containing graphic signs (e.g. letters) recorded in a special code linked to fonts located in a PDF file or the computer system.

Font – a set of graphic signs used to display/print text.

Embedded font – a set of graphic signs used to display/print text, attached to a PDF file.

Printed register – a graphic element located on the edge of cut and marking the location of the chapters of a book.

Cutting register – cuts on the book edges, marking the location of the chapters of a book.

Printing mark – all graphic signs required in the printing process, but not constituting a part of a publication.

Line of cut – a graphic sign located beyond the trimmed size and marking the edge of cut.

Hairline – the thinnest line possible to be made/printed on a particular device.

Register mark – a graphic sign located beyond the trimmed size, intended for checking the accuracy of the color register in a production copy. Not useful in digital printing.

Smoothing the edges (Antyaliasing) – a method of smoothing the edges of bitmap objects which, after applying a raster, have unaesthetic ragged edges.

Compression artifacts – staining occurring on the edges of contrasting objects after applying JPEG compression.

Book sheet – a sheet of a book containing an uneven page followed by an even page.

Imposition – electronic layout involving the proper arrangement of textblocks or individual pieces on a single sheet, including the printing, folding, and binding method.

Part/Piece – a single page of a book or work fitting on a printing paper. Depending on the format, a printing paper can accommodate one or more pieces.

Preparation of materials for printing, also known as DTP

Types of errors

Critical error – errors in files that will interrupt the printing process or lead to a loss of important information in the final product (e.g. text slicing).

Non-critical errors – errors in files that are likely to interrupt the printing process.

Aesthetic errors – errors in a project affecting the aesthetics of a product, e.g. texts on creases etc.

Book anatomy and binding

Book anatomy

Brochure binding – books in a softcover glued directly to the block.

Softcover – saddle stitched – a simple binding made of a single-fold block with/without a cover, wire stitched in the spine.

Softcover – thread sewn – a type of cardboard cover binding where block sheets are joined with threads.

Softcover – perfect bound – a type of cardboard cover binding where block sheets are joined with glue.

Hardcover binding – books in a hardcover, in which the binding elements are joined together using end papers (not in the spine).

Hardcover – thread sewn – books in a hardcover, in which the binding elements are joined together using end papers (not in the spine), while the block / the inside is thread stitched.

Hardcover – perfect bound – books in a hardcover, in which the binding elements are joined together using end papers (not in the spine), while the block / the inside is joined using a bindery glue.

Flexo bound – books in a softcover, in which the binding elements are joined together using end papers (not in the spine).

Spiral bound – a type of binding, in which the sheets of the block and the cover are loose sheets with a spiral wire threaded through the holes made in their back margin.

Book block – a set of folded sheets or sheets joined at the spine, prepared to be joined with a cover; constitutes the internal part of the binding.

Block book sewn – a set of folded sheets joined together in the bindery thread stitching process.

Block book glue – a set of sheets joined together in the sheet gluing process.

Inside – pages within a publication.

Cover – the external protection of a book block, made of cardboard (softcover or integrated binding) or board (hardcover binding).

Casewrap – elastic material, paper, fabric, etc. for covering the base case and the spine board. It has an ornamental function and holds the base case and the spine board together.

Base case – board forming the front and back surface of the cover of a hardcover binding.

Spine board – a strip of cardboard for stiffening the spine of the cover of hardcover binding.

Hinge – the surface between the base case and the spine board in uniform and combined covers facilitating opening the cover.

Endband – an ornamental cotton or silk strip, glued to the upper and lower edge of the spine of a book block to improve the aesthetics.

Bookmark – a thin and long strip of material joined with the upper part of the spine making it easier for a reader to open the book on a particular page.

End paper – a single-fold sheet of printed or blank paper, usually with higher grammage, glued to the internal page surface of the base case and joined with the block.

Own paper – an extreme sheet of the block glued to the internal page surface of the base case.

Dust jacket – an element of the cover put loosely on the cover as a protection and decoration.

Band – a strip of blank or printed paper intended for banding a single or several print copies.

Pocket – a properly formed bindery material joined with the internal page of a cover or an end paper, intended for inserts.

Case box – a type of protective box for a binding or several copies of a binding.

Insert sheet – a sheet/folded sheet constituting an additional element of a binding, made in a separate production process. An insert sheet and a block are joined directly after printing, before sewing or gluing.

Fixed insert sheet – a sheet/folded sheet constituting an additional element of a binding, made in a separate production process. A fixed insert sheet and a block are joined after sewing, gluing, or even after binding the block.

Insert – sheets, pages, bookmarks, leaflets inserted loosely into a finished block or under a glued band.

Polyptych – an insert sheet or a fixed insert sheet projecting beyond the edge of a block and folded once or multiple times to fit into the block.

Offpfrint – a part of a book, a chapter or an article, isolated from the block and bound separately.

Crease – a rectilinear embossing or dent facilitating folding and bending bindery materials.

Open crease – a cover crease that ends the side gluing area and facilitates opening the cover pages.

Fold – the folding point of a sheet or a web on a paper with low grammage; depending on the location on a folded sheet.

Collating – collecting a block by stacking folded sheets or sheets one on top of the other in a correct order.

Side glueing – a strip 5–7mm wide on the first and the fourth page of the cover located at the spine, glued to the book block.

Color pattern – a sheet/book approved by a client, serving as a color reference for a printer to render as closely as possible.

Proof – a copy simulating the color reproduction quality in accordance with ISO, constituting a color reference to be achieved in production printing.

Softproof – a production file after a technical analysis or an order conformity check, covering a software report and remarks reported by a specialist.

Hardproof – one or several copies of a book (without refinement) on a production substrate or a different substrate with similar parameters for inspection purposes / for final acceptance of the product before production printing.

Proof plano – sheets printed on a production substrate or a different substrate with similar parameters/non-bound block for acceptance before production printing.

Production sample – one or several copies of a book selected from the main print run for a final inspection.

Book anatomy and binding

Enhancement

Hot-stampnig – the process of transferring a metalized or colored film layer on a treated material under the influence of heat and pressure of a die.

Thermo-stamping – a bindery stamping technique making it possible to obtain decorative elements in the form of a one-sided CONCAVE relief on a material/canvas using a hot die.

Debossing – a bindery stamping technique making it possible to obtain decorative elements in the form of a one-sided CONCAVE relief on a paper substrate.

Embossing – a bindery stamping technique making it possible to obtain decorative elements in the form of a one-sided CONVEX relief on a paper substrate.

Stamp/die/matrix – a properly formed element / stamp made of a heat-conductive material (e.g. metal) used for impressing patterns in film or dry embossing.

Counter punch – a negative of a die used in dry embossing on a cardboard or paper substrate to enhance the relief effect.

Die-cutting – a bindery operation involving cutting a desired shaped out of a sheet of paper, cardboard, board or other similar substrate using a cutting die.

Flat-bed cutting die – a tool made of steel tapes mounted in a proper flat base (plywood, plastic plate) used for cutting/creasing a particular shape out of a sheet.

Lamination by foil – coating the entire printing surface with transparent plastic film with glossy, matte, soft touch, or special finish in order to obtain a protective and decorative coat.

Laminating paper by paper – laminating considerably thicker paper, i.e. board or two papers with similar grammage, with thinner paper (blank or printed).

Full surface varnish – a type of refinement involving application of a special solution, which, after curing, serves as a protection and decoration.

Spot varnish – a type of refinement involving the application of a special varnish in selected places of a substrate, which, after curing, produces a decorative effect in the form of a glossy, matte, or glitter surface.

Mask for varnish – a printed or illuminated varnish pattern on a transparent film. Places with full coverage / black color corresponds to dots that will be selectively coated with a UV varnish.

Exposure – the technique of applying an image onto a special light-sensitive film (screen printing) or an offset plate (offset printing) using a laser.

Screen printing – a printing technique where a printing form is a template applied to a fine-grained woven, metal, or synthetic fibre mesh. Making a copy involves pumping ink or varnish through the mesh.

Offset printing – an industrial type of flat printing where an image is transferred from a printing form onto a substrate using a blanket cylinder. Offset printing is currently one of the most commonly used printing techniques.

Book anatomy and binding

Paper specification

Grammage – a basic paper parameter expressing the weight of a one-square-meter sheet.

Volume – a paper parameter defining the ratio of paper thickness (in μm) to its grammage (in g/m2).

Offset paper – a general name for non-woven white paper usually used in offset printing.

Bulk paper – a grade of offset paper featuring a loose structure with a higher thickness.

Uncoated paper – paper with a delicate, rough structure, generally white/yellow, with no refining layers.

Coated paper – paper with an additionally refined surface, usually featuring high whiteness and a smooth, glossy or matte surface (on one or both sides); intended mainly for multi-color printing.*

Card board – paper with the grammage of 200–500 g/m2, used for printing in the production of covers, postcards, folders, etc.

Board – the thickest paper material (up to 4 mm of thickness) made by gluing from two to several layers of paper stock, used as a base for laminating paper by paper.